The Initials Project: JR-CSF and JR-FL

29 October 2013 by Nathalia Holt, posted in The Initials Project

For two years I worked with a strain of HIV called JR-CSF. Although I was well versed in how the virus behaved in human cells grown in a flask, I had no idea where the strain came from or how it received its name. The initials project was inspired by the work of Rebecca Skloot and her investigation of Henrietta Lacks, known in the lab only as HeLa. In this series we’ll explore the people and science that made the cells, viruses and reagents behind the initials and acronyms used everyday in labs worldwide. First up is the story of J.R.

 

Yoshio Koyanagi wrote the initials on the side of the vial in tiny print: JR-CSF. It was the first year of his postdoctoral training and, in his own words; he “didn’t know the rules of nomenclature.” Instead he named the virus based on where it came from.  The name was simple and descriptive. He took the samples from a man whose initials were J.R. Then he added which part of the body they were isolated from. JR-CSF came from the filtered liquid of J.R.’s cerebrospinal fluid. JR-FL, on the other hand, was isolated from the frontal lobe of J.R.’s brain.

This was the first HIV positive patient Yoshio had ever isolated virus from. The year was 1986. On a warm evening in June, J.R. passed away. His disease was rapid. He had AIDS encephalopathy, a horrible disorder where the virus shuts down the brain. In his last days the virus left him with a crippling dementia. As if that wasn't enough, J.R. also suffered from a cancer commonly found in those with HIV called Kaposi’s sarcoma. It left red lesions across his body and made it difficult for him to breathe. He wasn’t alone in his illness. His partner had recently succumbed to the same unexplainably rapid AIDS disease.

 

It was the early days of the epidemic. Two years earlier, in 1984, HIV had been identified as the cause of AIDS. Despite this knowledge, there was no treatment available. Doctors could offer little but supportive care. In 1987 the FDA approved AZT, the first drug effective against HIV. It was a year too late for J.R.

 

Yoshio went to graduate school at Kyoto University in Japan before coming to Irvin Chen’s lab at UCLA for his postdoc. He entered the autopsy room on June 11, 1986. Yoshio was interested in HIV and the central nervous system. When he took the virus from J.R.’s brain and spinal fluid he couldn’t know that the samples he was extracting would become critically important to HIV research.

 

What makes J.R.’s samples so special is that even though they were both extracted from the central nervous system, one from the brain and one from the cerebrospinal fluid, they are genetically distinct. Although they came from the same person, they are two viruses. They even infect different cells. The virus originating from the brain can infect macrophages, an immune cell that protects us by eating up things like bacteria and dead cells. The description of J.R.’s viruses, published in 1987, was an early glimpse inside HIV’s diverse and pathogenic world. But the real gift J.R. gave us is the unique ability of his viruses to behave as aggressively in a lab dish as they once did in his body. The pathogenic nature of his viruses is partly determined by the HIV strain itself but also selected from the pressure a person’s immune system places on the virus. Make no mistake; J.R.’s viruses are valuable because he made them that way.

 

In the 25 years since J.R.’s viruses were isolated, they have been grown in hundreds of laboratories all over the world. The virus has become a respected lab-adapted strain that can be counted on to kill human cells and cell lines in culture, producing large quantities of itself in the process. The strain has been used in countless studies: from vaccine development to microbicides to eradication research. There’s hardly an area of HIV research that J.R. hasn’t had some role in.

 

Today thousands of HIV researchers around the world work with JR-CSF and JR-FL on a daily basis without any thought of the person behind the initials. HIV and J.R. are both literally and figuratively intertwined. Even after billions of rounds of replication, the genomes of JR-CSF and JR-FL hold the imprint of the person who carried them. Part of J.R. is forever wrapped up in the replicating virus. Similarly, the initials J.R. have become part of HIV’s identity, indistinguishable from the virus for those familiar with the samples. Every day students and postdocs thaw tiny vials with the labels JR-CSF and JR-FL neatly printed on opaque labels. They grow the virus in a warm incubator, writing J.R. on the side of flasks, tubes, plates. They print J.R. in their lab notebooks and then type his initials again in their research papers. His initials are spoken aloud in meetings, presentations, and the hushed tones that herald new data. He is everywhere and yet nowhere. Thank you J.R.

 

Interested in working with J.R.’s samples? You can order them from the NIH repository here

Yoshio Koyanagi, MD/PhD is a professor at Kyoto University and still works with JR-CSF and JR-FL you can find his lab here


19 Responses to “The Initials Project: JR-CSF and JR-FL”

  1. MADAM VICKY Reply | Permalink

    I have been suffering hardship from HIV/AIDS since 7yrs now, and i happen to have 2 kids for my husband, and now we cannot proceed to have another kids all because of my disease and now i have do all what a human like i and my husband can do just to get my disease healed, i have went to several places to seek for help not even one person could ever help, until i melt a comment on the daily news paper that was commented by Desmond about how this powerful traditional doctor help him get cured of the disease (HIV-AIDS) " my fellow beloved" i firstly taught having a help from a spiritual traditional healer was a wrong idea, but i think of these, will i continue to stress on these disease all day when i have someone to help me save my life?" so i gather all my faiths and put in all interest to contact him through his Email address at hivcurecenter@gmail.com , so after i have mailed him of helping get my disease cured, he respond to me fast as possible that i should not be afraid, that he is a truthful and powerful doctor which i firstly claimed him to be. So after all set has been done, he promise me that i will be healed but on a condition that i provide him some items and obeyed all his oracle said. I did all by accepting his oracles fact and only to see that after some weeks of taking his herbal medicine i notice some changes in my body system and i went for check up the day he ask me to go for check up to confirm if the sickness was still there,to my greatest surprise i could not find any sickness in my body i was first shocked and later arise to be the happiest woman on earth after i have concluded my final test on the hospital by my doctor that i am now HIV- Negative. My papers for check are with me and now i am happy and glad for his miraculous help and power.
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    • shally mills Reply | Permalink

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  2. dr ekpen Reply | Permalink

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  6. shally mills Reply | Permalink

    Good day everyone,I AM FROM SOUTH AFRICA I have been suffering from HIV/Aids for over 4 years now, and suddenly, i have spent all my money all to make sure i get healthy all day, I came in contact with a traditional doctor also known as Dr.Trust on a newspaper. who has help much people to cure their HIV and AIDS disease, firstly i taught it was a joke until i contacted him.and he said that if i am ready for this work, i told him yes, and he collected my details and told me that the spell will only take two days.i was unhealthy ling surprise. And truly he called me to quickly go for a medical checkup, which I did, only to find out that I was not with any HIV disease anymore, my friends and families who left me before run back to me. I now found out that God in Heaven is using this man to bless and heal us all, he is a great and powerful man, again I say to you sir, that God Almighty will uplift you and your great work you did for I and other people. Please i will sincerely advice all HIV patient to contact this great powerful man called Dr Trust for your solutions. Ultimatespellcast@gmail.com or Ultimatespellcast@yahoo.com or call him +2348156885231 He is the best spell caster to work with,i promise you that you will get your problems solved.

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  8. Emma Reply | Permalink

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  9. oliver wealth Reply | Permalink

    This is amazing i am oliver from uk,i am so happy today because of the great work dr odogun has done in my life for saving my family. I got married to my loving husband 3 years ago and we were living a happy life together and everything was moving on smoothly without any problem, 4 months later I went to the hospital for checkup and the doctor confirmed that I am three weeks pregnant with my heart filled with joy and my face full of smile and laughter I went home excitedly to tell my husband the good news and he was very excited about the news and that day is a day I will always live to remember, to cut the story short after I have put to birth a bouncing baby girl he was very happy, but along the line and all of a sudden he started keeping late night and doing things he don't use to do before, and one mourning I confronted him about his new attitude but he did not listen to my advice, but to my greatest surprise I discover my husband have a mistress in his office place and they were seeing each other after work hour. on one faithful night my husband came back home and started packing all his belongings and told me that he is tired of me that he is filing for a annulment not knowing that his mistress has cast love spell on him that was why he was acting strange so I told my friend about what am experiencing at home she told me not to worry about that and she gave me this contact drodogunlovespelltemple@hotmail.com and ask me to contact him that he will help me to bring back my husband in noon less than 12hours but at first i doubted she told me that this doctor is extremely powerful that the doctor has work for her and she confirm him real so when I got home I contacted him and he told me that my husband is under a great love spell but he promise to help bring back my husband which he actually did within the period of 12hours. I was surprise to see my husband in the nest mourning bring back all the things he took out of our house and kneel in front of me and my kids crying asking for my forgiveness saying it is the work of the devil that he did not know what he was doing and I forgive him and today we are living happily together. i thank you sir for the great work you did for me for saving my family, in-case you have similar case or even worst than my own you can contact him with his EMAIL ADDRESS: drodogunlovespelltemple@hotmail.com

  10. Tanasia Reply | Permalink

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  11. barry Reply | Permalink

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  12. Jessca Edwards Reply | Permalink

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  13. missjou Reply | Permalink

    After being in relationship with JOHN for five years, he broke up with me, I did everything possible to bring him back to me, but all was in vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I begged him with everything i have, I made promises but he refused. I explained my problem to a friend and she suggested that I should contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring him back but I am the type that don't believed in spells, I had no choice than to try it, I meant a spell caster called oladimejili and I email him, and he told me there was no problem that everything will be okay before 24hours, that my ex will return to me before 24hours, he cast the spell and surprisingly before 18hours, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and who is different from all the fake ones out there. Anybody could need the help of the spell caster, his website is (http://oladimejilispellmiraclespelltemple.webs.com) you can email him (oladimejilispelltemple@gmail.com) if you need his assistance in your relationship or anything. CAN NEVER STOP TALKING ABOUT YOU SIR. CONTACT HIM NOW FOR SOLUTION TO ALL YOUR PROBLEMS

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  14. sandra Reply | Permalink

    My Name is sandra, from United Kingdom. I wish to
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  15. Janet Ruben Reply | Permalink

    My name is Janet Ruben and I live in USA...My life is back again... After 3 years of Broken marriage, my husband left me with kids .I felt like my life was about to end and I almost committed suicide, I was emotionally down for a very long time.Thanks to a spell caster called Dr SUKU,his email address:greatsukusolutiontemple@hotmail.com which I meet online, On one faithful day, as I was browsing through the internet and I came across a lot of testimonies about this particular spell caster.Some people testified that he brought their Ex boyfriend back, some testified that he restores Womb,Cure Cancer and Herpes Virus and HIV Cure other sickness, some testified that he can cast a spell to stop divorce and so on. I also come across one particular testimony and it was about a woman called Joyce,she testified about how he brought back her Ex lover in less than 2 days and at the end of her testimony she dropped Dr SUKU mail address.his website: http://greatsukusolutiontemplehotmailcom.webs.com/ After reading all these,I decided to give it a try and I contacted him via email and explained my problem to him.In just 48 hours, my husband came back to me and we solved our issues, we are even happier than before Dr SUKU is really a gifted man and I will not stop testifying him because he is a wonderful man and so powerful... or call his Mobil number or you can add him true is what App:+234874839242 If you have a problem and you are looking for a real and genuine spell caster to solve all your problems. contact him email:greatsukusolutiontemple@hotmail.com

  16. Sharon Matins Reply | Permalink

    Wow: who will ever believe that a herb can cure HIV Virus, i never believe that this will work i have spend a lot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy,i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day I was in the office thinking where I can go to get solution. so a friend walked to my office as me why am I so sad and i open up all to her telling her my problem, she told me that she can help me out, she introduce me to a doctor who uses herbal medication to cure HIV VIRUS and she gave me his email, so i mail him.He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after two weeks To my greatest surprise after patiently going according to instruction given to me by this man called Dr OSAKA and i went for a medical test and the result was negative. I want to say thanks to Dr OSAKA who God have sent to heal is people and God will bless you for the good work you are doing. you can also contact this great and powerful man if you have this problem his via email;drosakamiracletemple@hotmail.com that why am sharing this post to everyone who still have HIV/aids or HSV VIRUS he do it for me will also do it for you.his lot number:+2348059723809 or his email:drosakamiracletemple@hotmail.com

  17. vivica Reply | Permalink

    What a surprise??? i cant believe this is happening to me...my ex left me for another after 4 years of courtship and i was left alone.After so many temptations and trials,i came across the prophet that brought and he gave me some instructions and i simply abide to it,low and behold it was like a dream when my man called and was begging me to forgive him hahaha so funny and surprising. please hasten up and call him immediately via: prophetajege@gmail.com/+23408071147328

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