Monthly Archives: January 2013


To Branch, Or Not To Branch – Plant Hormones Help Turn A Stem Into A Bush

Posted 31 January 2013 by Jalees Rehman

When we hear the expression "stem cells", we tend to think of cells from animals or patients that are used to treat diseases or promote regeneration. However, stem cells are also present in plants. The growing tips of plants are called meristems and they are reservoirs of plant stem cells. A meristem is formed at the base of each leaf and can remain dormant as a small bud or be activated and give rise to a whole new branch. Gardeners... Read more

Flipping the Switch: Using Optogenetics to Treat Seizures

Posted 24 January 2013 by Jalees Rehman

Optogenetics is emerging as one of the most exciting new tools in biomedical research. This method is based on introducing genes that encode for light-sensitive proteins into cells. A laser beam can then be used to activate the light-sensitive proteins. Many of the currently used optogenetic proteins respond to the laser activation by changing the membrane voltage potential inside the cells. This is the reason why neurons and other cells that can be excited by electrical impulses, are ideally suited... Read more

Is Cannabis Usage “Related” to Strokes?

Posted 23 January 2013 by Jalees Rehman

Any research related to cannabis is bound to be sensationalized or politicized because people have strong emotional and political views about its usage. A few months ago, my fellow Scilogs blogger Suzi Gage wrote an excellent blog post about a study that investigated the link between cannabis usage and intelligence. That study had many critical flaws which were often ignored when the research was reported and discussed in the media. All research should be conducted and reported cautiously. However, when... Read more

Using Viagra To Burn Fat

Posted 17 January 2013 by Jalees Rehman

Mammals have two types of fat tissue: Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT or "brown fat") and White Adipose Tissue (WAT or "white fat"). Brown fat cells are packed with many small fat droplets and mitochondria, which is why they appear "brown" under the microscope. Their mitochondria contain high levels of the protein UCP-1 (uncoupling protein 1), which "uncouples" fat metabolism from the generation of chemical energy molecules (ATP) for the cell. Instead, brown fat cells release the energy contained in the... Read more

Beautiful Animations of Cellular Processes

Posted 17 January 2013 by Jalees Rehman

The professional animator and molecular biologist Janet Iwasa at Harvard Medical School is generating beautiful animations of cellular processes such as proteasome structure and function or endocytosis. Importantly, she has published these on her website with a Creative Commons license so that everyone has access to them. She has been interviewed by EarthSky, where she explains why she became a molecular animator. Movie about the proteasome structure: Movie about chromosome segregation: Movie about protein translocation (movement of proteins across membranes):... Read more

Dual Identity and Radicalism Among Immigrants

Posted 15 January 2013 by Jalees Rehman

The majority of my scientific colleagues with whom I work in the United States are either immigrants or children of immigrants. Most of them are American citizens, but they also retain strong cultural bonds with their ancestral homelands. This does not seem to constitute much of a problem for them. America is the land of immigrants where one is surrounded by people who are quite comfortable with their hyphenated dual identities. Irish-Americans or Chinese-Americans can be proud of their respective... Read more

Radical Tails: Antioxidants Can Prevent Regeneration

Posted 14 January 2013 by Jalees Rehman

Amphibians such as frogs or salamanders have a remarkable ability to regenerate amputated limbs and tails. The regenerative process involves the formation of endogenous pluripotent stem cells, which then expand and differentiate into the tissue types that give rise to the regenerated body part. The complex interplay of the cell types and signals involved in this regenerative response to the injury are not fully known and there is considerable interest in identifying all the necessary steps. The ultimate hope is... Read more

Immune Cells Can Remember Past Lives

Posted 9 January 2013 by Jalees Rehman

The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is one of the most fascinating discoveries in the history of stem cell biology. John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka received the 2012 Nobel Prize for showing that adult cells could be induced to become embryonic-like stem cells (iPSCs). Many stem cell laboratories now routinely convert skin cells or blood cells from an adult patient into iPSCs. The stem cell properties of the generated iPSCs then allow researchers to convert them into a... Read more

Inspired By Snake Venom

Posted 1 January 2013 by Jalees Rehman

When I remember the 80s, I think of Nena’s 99 Luftballons, Duran Duran’s Wild Boys and ….snake venom. Back in those days, I used to be a typical high school science nerd. My science nerdiness interfered with my ability to socialize with non-nerds and it was characterized by an unnecessary desire to read science books and articles that I did not really understand, just so that I could show off with some fancy science terminology. I did not have much... Read more